Automotive aerodynamics is the study of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Its main goals are reducing drag and wind noise, minimizing noise emission, and preventing undesired lift forces and other causes of aerodynamic instability at high speeds. Air is also considered a fluid in this case. For some classes of racing vehicles, it may also be important to produce downforce to improve traction and thus cornering abilities.
An aerodynamic automobile will integrate the wheel arcs and lights into the overall shape to reduce drag. It will be streamlined; for example, it does not have sharp edges crossing the wind stream above the windshield and will feature a sort of tail called a fastback or Kammback or liftback. Note that the Aptera 2e, the Loremo, and the Volkswagen 1-litre car try to reduce the area of their back. It will have a flat and smooth floor to support the Venturi effect and produce desirable downwards aerodynamic forces. - is used for cooling, combustion, and for passengers, then reaccelerated by a nozzle and then ejected under the floor. For mid and rear engines air is decelerated and pressurized in a diffuser, loses some pressure as it passes the engine bay, and fills the slipstream. These cars need a seal between the low pressure region around the wheels and the high pressure around the gearbox. They all have a closed engine bay floor. The suspension is either streamlined (Aptera) or retracted. Door handles, the antenna, and roof rails can have a streamlined shape. The side mirror can only have a round fairing as a nose. Air flow through the wheel-bays is said to increase drag (German source) though race cars need it for brake cooling and many cars emit the air from the radiator into the wheel bay.
Automotive aerodynamics is studied using both computer modelling and wind tunnel testing. For the most accurate results from a wind tunnel test, the tunnel is sometimes equipped with a rolling road. This is a movable floor for the working section, which moves at the same speed as the air flow. This prevents a boundary layer from forming on the floor of the working section and affecting the results.